CPAP machine for COVID-19 patients
CPAP v1.0 machine for COVID-19 patients
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KUET’s Professor and M’s Engineering Solution Jointly Developed CPAP Device (as an Alternative to Ventilator) to Support COVID-19 Patients

Video: Please visit: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hngy0GmscOA

 

COVID-19 pandemic is a very challenging time that the mankind has been experiencing since Spanish Flu in 1918. The virus attacks the respiratory system and patients with damaged lung are the most vulnerable, which may lead to the critical stage requiring ventilation. Invasive Mechanical Ventilator is the most important device to support COVID-19 patients for treatment in ICU. According to WHO, some 80% of patients with COVID-19 recover without hospitalization; the rest needs treatment at hospital and only a small portion (around one in six) of patient needs Ventilator support. COVID-19 patients actually need supportive care where non-invasive ventilation is also used. Among non-invasive ventilators Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) is widely used for respiratory support.

A Ventilator delivers oxygen to the body by invasive tubes that pass through a patient's mouth, vocal cords into their lungs. The device is applied by only skilled technicians when a patient cannot breathe on his own and its placement and operation require specialized hospital facility. Moreover, invasive Ventilator devices are very costly. On the other hand, CPAP is non-invasive device typically used for sleep apnea, which is a sleep condition that causes one's breathing to stop and start irregularly. It is used with a nasal mask to be put over a patient's nose to help breathing. A CPAP is much cheaper than a Ventilator and is usable in both hospital and home environments as it does not require skilled technician to place. Report shows hospitals in different counties are keeping CPAPs as backup of Ventilators. Therefore, CPAP is the most effective device to support a large number of COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh especially who have respiratory problem.

Dr. Md. Aminul Haque Akhand (Professor and Ex-Head, CSE, KUET) and Engr. Mithun Kumar Das (CEO, M’s Lab Engineering Solution, Dhaka) developed a low-cost CPAP device made of easily available spare parts with support and knowledge from Dr. N. Siddique, Ulster University, UK, Dr. Jeenat Khan (Medical doctor) and Dr. Nashid Noor Alam (Medical doctor), Belfast, UK  hospitals. As Dr. Akhand said that the plan was to develop an invasive Ventilator but later changed their mind for developing CPAP taking advice from the UK doctors who are working in the front-line fighting COVID-19 in Belfast (UK) hospitals.

The developed CPAP is a micro-controller controlled electro-mechanical device for respiratory support system to be used by COVID-19 patients. The device maintains a controlled constant air pressure to support breathing patient suffering from respiratory problems. The device comprises a control unit, a special air pump, power unit with backup battery, nasal mask and digital display. The pump is the heart of the device and is used to make pressurized air; embedded pressure sensor measures air pressure. A tuner is used to tune the appropriate pressure level according to patient’s breathing condition. The control circuit senses the tuned value and controls the air pump to the required constant air pressure. The device also automatically maintains pressure level based on patients’ condition such as sleep or wakeup state. Finally, the pressurized air flows through the nasal mask and patient’s nose via an air hose. The device uses a power supply of AC 220V controlled by circuit through rechargeable battery. The system runs from battery backup without any interruption for an hour or more (depending of battery capacity) when AC power supply fails. Battery status and other system’s status are visible on LCD display.

 

 

 

 

                  Block Diagram of the Developed CPAP Device and Placement Demo.

 

 
   

Video: Please visit: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hngy0GmscOA


The preliminary evaluation of the developed CPAP with other available devices based on specifications shows the better compatibility in terms of functionality and performance but very cost effective in terms of price. The cost of the developed CPAP prototype is around 10,000 BDT at the moment but the retail price will depend on production cost in mass industrial level and marketing cost. Online retail price of CPAPs made in China is currently 50000 DBT or higher. The commercial production of the developed CPAP is possible in any electronic assembly company with medium or higher scale production facility. Considering cost of Ventilators, unavailable of facility and technicians in the hospitals and clinics in district and upazilla level, the developed CPAP might play an effective role in the treatment of COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh. The affordable cost and easy usability (even in home) of the device might reduce the huge demand on local hospitals in COVID-19 pandemic. The device may also be useful in sleep apnea cases to be used at home.

 

The subsequent plan of the team is to proceed for commercial production of the CPAP device using available and accessible infrastructure within the country to combat COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. For commercial production, team is requesting for the necessary supports from the respective government authorities and departments.

 

 

 

 

Figure: Outside View of CPAP Device. Dimension: 200mm x 200mm x 90mm; Weight: 1.6Kg

Figure: Components with Marking in Inside CPAP Device.

 

 

 

Video: Please visit: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hngy0GmscOA

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table: Comparison of developed CPAP with available ones on the basis of given specifications.

Particular

BMC RESmart GII Auto CPAP System E-20A

Hypnus CPAP Auto with Humidifier CA720

Developed CPAP

Manufacturer

BMC, China

Hypnus, China

 

Item type

Sleep & Snoring

Sleep & Snoring

Sleep & Snoring

Pressure Range

4-20 cmH2O

4-20 cmH2O; DEP (Decrease Exhale Pressure)

Adoptable

(To be Measured)

Pressure Display

Pa

Pa

%

Material

Compound Material

 

Compound

Work Mode

CPAP auto titrate

 

CPAP

Noise

<30dB

<29dB

Acceptable

(To be Measured)

Air Hose

6ft

 

6ft

Temp.

5-35’C

 

Natural

Humidity

15-93%

5 level humidifiers

Natural

Screen

TFT

 

LCD

Mode of Operation

Continuous

 

Continuous

AC Power

220V, 2A max

 

Battery + AC220V, 15Watt max

Dimension

170mm × 196mm ×118mm

 

200mm × 200mm × 90mm

Weight

1.5Kg

 

1.6Kg

Market Price

55000 BDT

50000 BDT

 

Device Image

 

 

Dr. Md. Aminul Haque Akhand

Professor and Ex-Head, Dept of CSE

Khulna University of Engineering & Technology (KUET)

Email: akhand@cse.kuet.ac.bd

Website: www.kuet.ac.bd/cse/akhand

Engr. Mithun Kumar Das

CEO, M’s Lab Engineering Solution, Dhaka

Email: mithun060@gmail.com

Website https://mlabsbd.com/